2015 – Efficient Construction Delivery – Process, Technology, People, and Knowledge

practical BIM

Everyday BIM

reposted  and adapted from practicalBIM: 28 Aug 2015 08:14 PM PDT
BIM is not  A UTOPIA

BIM is a set of processes that manages certain technologies. It is, and always will be, changing. As new technologies become possible new process will evolve. And it will eventually be superseded by a new acronym for a different approach, just as BIM superseded CAD.
There is no end, no point in the future where BIM will be perfected and stabilized.

Why is this important to appreciate? If you are adopting BIM under the assumption it is a one off exercise that leads to an amazing outcome you will be sorely disappointed. If you are waiting for BIM to reach perfection before adopting it you will be waiting forever.
There will be improvements, but the perfection promised will never arrive, and the need for further changes will not evaporate.
BIM is not an end in itself. It is a process of continuing improvement.


There is an underlying assumption that a BIM model must become a single unified ‘thing’ (“Integrated Data Environment”), and that all BIM processes must be under the control of one entity.
This view is promoted by the UK Levels of BIM Maturity (as per the Bew Richards diagram), where ‘Level 3’ BIM is an integrated web based solution (so called ‘iBIM’).
The only realistic way this can happen is if all participants use the same platform, or all rigorously comply to the same Standards, (assuming multiple platforms will be able to communicate via data that adheres to Standards).

Whilst it is true greater efficiencies are theoretically possible by tight integration of all aspects of design, construction and operation, there are consequences of this approach that are being ignored.

Forcing all participants use the same platform will lead to inefficiencies amongst individual parties. Each of us make choices about technologies and processes that are the most efficient at fulfilling our responsibilities. And because of competition the best available comes into common use. These individual actions add up to an efficient and cost effective overall process. Any ‘all in one’ platform will never contain the best in breed across all disciplines.
The result of  this approach will be the dominance of proprietary software monopolies, a situation all the software houses are currently scrambling to take advantage of.

The requirement for such tight integration will also encourage the ascendancy of large multi-disciplinary firms and vertical integration into AECO conglomerates. Say good-bye to the bespoke architectural design firm, medium size contractors and specialist sub-contractors.

The expectation that iBIM will be possible through the use of Standards is just a fantasy, more on that below.

The whole idea of iBIM is analogous to a command economy. In theory a fully managed economy with centralized decision making should be more efficient. But in practice a market where individuals make the decisions is more efficient. Blatantly demonstrated when the USSR collapsed, and more recently the problems in Venezuela.

BIM is a set of processes that manages certain technologies. There is no reason those processes can not be tailored to suit ways of working that maintain the efficiencies of a market approach.

That is not to say iBIM is not a realistic prospect, nor that it will never happen. The problem is when it is assumed it will be the ONLY future for effective BIM.


There is an enormous expectation that Standards will make BIM not just more efficient, but in the minds of many BIM will not be truly possible until Standards are in universal use.

Now, I believe Standards are a good thing, which is why I follow their development so closely. But they are not the panacea they are portrayed to be. And the main reasons are inherent in how Standards are created.

Standards take a long time to be developed and agreed. Most work on Standards around the world is done for free by volunteers. The process for approving Standards is also unpaid and requires many people, often from widely dispersed places, to come together. This is particularly pertinent for technology dependent processes like BIM where Standards trail current practice not by years but by decades.
Because Standard creation and agreement is largely unrewarded the best and brightest, most experienced, are not attracted to participate. Although it does tends to attract academics, where their participation does bring reputational rewards. They may be the brightest, but lack practical experience and tend to create obtuse documents no-one else but fellow academics can comprehend.

So Standards invariably document out of date practices in a manner that can not be understood by those who are supposed to follow them.

I don’t see how it will ever be possible to entirely rely on Standards and their adherence to deliver BIM. Processes and conventions developed by individual people, firms and project teams will always pay a major role in BIM. Just as proprietary software and formats will always be at the forefront of BIM technology.
Standards development should focus on supporting market driven BIM, not be put forward as BIM itself.
So what is BIM?

At its core BIM is a concept – the idea that the physical building, systems within it and processes used to realize it are modelled before a building is built.
This sounds simple but is a paradigm shift from how most architects and engineers view their deliverables. The norm is to privilege drawings – that the firm’s output are drawings. Of course their real output, and what everyone else expects, is information. Drawings merely communicate this information, they are nothing more than a tool.
When training CAD users to use BIM software the biggest hurdle is to get them to understand that the drawing is not the most important aspect. To get them to stop obsessing over line weights and concentrate on ensuring wall definitions reflect what the wall is to be constructed from.

Once people get it – that their job is to model, not to draw, everything becomes much easier.
And if you don’t understand this, you will never use BIM to its full potential.


BIM is a set of processes that manages AECO technologies. Individual processes that can be linked to and linked from other processes. Processes that work in parallel, branch off and have different outcomes, a bit like they way a molecule is structured. BIM is not one single linear process that will only work if all parts are in use.
Any part of the design, construction or operations of a building can use BIM. It doesn’t have to be used all the time for every task.
While it is true some processes aren’t possible if other processes are not being used, it does not necessarily follow that one process justifies the implementation of all its precursor processes.
Nor is the fact a particular BIM process is not being used reason enough to not use other BIM processes.

BIM entails multiple processes, each of which should be justifiable for its own sake.


The original intent of BIM was that by capturing work in a digital format it would be more useful to those that utilized the results of that work.
It was never intended to mean that BIM is a new, additional task that produces the raw data required by others to do their work. That BIM data provided will be structured to suit the work processes of others.

The workflow envisage was that some-one provided their BIM model to some-one else, who then extracted and restructured the information they required. The provider remains responsible for their data – that it represents their area of expertise and deliverables, but they are not accountable for its use by others for purposes outside of their responsibilities.
A services engineer provides a BIM model of ductwork to the contractor, which the contractor may use to create fabrication BIM. If there is an error in the fabrication model it is not the services engineer’s responsibility, but if there is an error in the capacity sizing provided it is. If architects model a building in 3D, and the structural and services engineers do the same, then this provides sufficient information to use software to check for clashes.
Providing someone with BIM data gives that person the opportunity to use it for their purposes. It may require validation and adjustment, but it is still usable and useful.

What BIM does is provide an opportunity for improved efficiency and quality of outcome through the availability of data. And this is best done  through fostering cooperation and collaboration, not rigid demands, especially from those outside the immediate process.


How might this approach be used everyday for real projects in the real world?
Some general suggestions:


Restrict BIM demands to things you need directly (e.g. asset management), and to ensure general BIM proficiency (e.g within discipline expectations like drawing and schedules generated from BIM).
Don’t make BIM data a deliverable if you don’t need it yourself, instead include engagement contract clauses that allow for the exchange of data between project participants.


Use BIM capable software in the way it is designed to be used.
Document how you structure your data and make both the description and data available to others.


Take advantage of the BIM data available on a project.
Foster BIM processes, along with cooperation and collaboration across project participants.


Embody BIM processes in supply chain and work management. Tailor those processes to take advantage of available BIM data.
Allow others to use the data you produce.


Develop FM solutions that take advantage of available BIM data.
Become involved before facility handover so you can make your requirements known to others.


Construction Industry – Growth Statistics


2014 showed an overall 4.76% annual growth rate for the U.S. construction sector.

The largest states for non-residential construction, ranking highest first,  were Texas, New York , California, Florida, and Louisiana.

In terms of percentage growth 2014 vs. 2013, the largest gains were posted by Hawaii, Arkansas, Texas, Montana, Oklahoma.

States with the largest drop in construction spending were South Dakota, Idaho, Oregon, the District of Columbia, and Vermont.

Construction spending data came from the U.S. Census Bureau, construction employment and annual wage data came from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. All data is current as of August 13, 2015.

http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and project management software for JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA …

JOC Contractors: YOUR Help Is Needed!

job order contracting

Contractor opinions and experiences are critical to the success of the JOC Research Study.

Owner participation in the ASU National JOC Research Study has been great, but Contractor participation has been low.

JOC is a collaborative construction delivery method and it’s for Contractors to do your part!

ASU National JOC Survey Flyer

The Performance Based Studies  Research Group (PBSRG) out  of  Arizona
State  University  (ASU)  is  currently  conducting  an  industry  wide  study
evaluating  the  Job  Order  Contracting  (JOC)  delivery  system.  We  are
surveying organizations on their experience and opinion of the JOC system.

1.To determine the value of the Job Order Contracting (JOC) delivery system across the entire construction project lifecycle.
2.To identify the efficiency and value it provides to the entire industry (buyers, owners, contractors, etc.).
3.To define both owner and contractor prerequisites and identifying factors required to ensure the successful delivery of a JOC program.

April 4, 2015 – Begin Survey Data Collection
Sep 18, 2015 – End Data Collection (Survey due date)
Jan 25, 2016 – Final JOC Report Completion

Participation in the research will commence as follows:
1.   Contact Research Manager, Jake Gunnoe at Jake.Gunnoe@asu.edu
2.   Review survey questions and arrange a clarification call with Jake
3.   Complete the survey by 1/18/15
4.   Receive a copy of the final report in early 2016.

LANDING PAGE: http://pbsrg.com/joc-survey-effort/

job order contracting

Attention Construction Contractors – Job Order Contracting Opportunity – JOC RFP

Job order contracting

TCPN, a national purchasing cooperative and Region 4 Education Service Center is advertising for an RFP for a national JOC contract.

job order contracting

This national RFP will be seeking qualified licensed general contractors in all states (excluding Arizona) to perform miscellaneous construction and repair services for TCPN Members on an as needed basis in accordance with relevant statutes governing the location where the work is performed.   This RFP is due by September 1, 2015.

Here are some of the highlights of this JOC RFP:

  • Award of this contract could allow you to work direct with K-12, higher education, cities, counties and non-profits.  Since the bid process is taking place, once awarded, your work would not be required to be bid again for up to 5 years.
  • This Contract will provide for a long-term solution (5 – 1 year contracts) that can be used over and over to secure work with customers in the public space.
  • Request a copy of the RFP here.

About TCPN:

  • TCPN manages contracts for Region 4 Education Service Center and is a National Cooperative Purchasing Network comprised of over 37,000 Members nationwide that encompass K-12, higher education, cities, counties, municipalities, state and non-profit agencies.
  • TCPN is a team dedicated to risk minimization to ensure quality projects by quality vendors, done safely and with a high level of compliance.
  • Many of past awarded vendors achieved sales between $5,000,000 – $10,000,000 using their TCPN Contract.
  • www.tcpn.org
  • Watch the TCPN Informational Video

How to Get Started:

  1. Request .pdf of Solicitation of RFP for Job Order Contract Services
  2. If awarded, attend training / orientation meetings with TCPN staff that are specialists as to how best use cooperative contracts to increase business opportunities.
  3. Go out and secure business direct with this pre-competed contract that allows you to work directly with your customers, streamlining their processes by using a contract that has already been bid and awarded via a government agency.

TCPN’s recent acquisition by National IPA (click here for press release), provides vendors with access to nearly 100,000 entities across the United States.  We hope that you will consider responding to the RFP that if awarded, could ultimately open doors across these markets and provide a vehicle to help you grow your business for years to come.

Addtional Contact Information:

David Adams, Vice-President, TCPN Facilities Solutions
11280 West Road
Houston, TX  77065



job order contracting

5 Ways Public Institutions Save Money with Job Order Contracting – JOC

Author: David Carrithers

job order contractingt

With state and local governments facing severe revenue shortfalls, all publicly-funded organizations, facilities and infrastructures have new demands put on them to find ways to get more done with less—less internal resources and less money. As a result, more facilities and government agencies are turning to job order contracting (JOC) to support their construction, renovation and repair efforts. Here are five ways a successful JOC program saves money:

1. Budget control. JOC uses pre-established unit prices, found in a unit price book. When seeking a contractor for repair, renovation and minor construction projects, the owner cites a unit price book in its request for proposal (RFP) while putting the JOC program together. The contractor offers a price coefficient for the work and materials, establishing its competitiveness up front—without knowing quantities, schedules or timing. Once the JOC program is in place the individual project/ task orders are managed through a defined process. The owner accepts the project proposal, which includes a detailed project scope document and detailed line item estimate, every project’s price is fixed once the proposal is accepted, so there are no budget surprises.

2. More funds applied to construction work instead of administration of RFPs. Without JOC, the owner must procure each project individually in the traditional design-bid-build procurement method. This adds costs—those of design, advertising, reviewing, potential re-bidding based on response, awarding and administering separate RFPs / solicitations for every project— for what are often smaller, repetitive construction projects. JOC allows the owner to shift its attention from procurement processing to the reduction of its backlog. All the dollars saved on procurement can be saved or go toward construction efforts.

3. Eliminated contractor driven change orders and legal claims. Individual projects under JOC receive upfront definition through detailed scope documents prepared by the contactor to match the owner’s objectives, budget and timeline. The precision put into preparation of the scope documents, detailed line item estimates and the project proposal eliminates change orders and claims.

4. Owner and contractor goals are aligned. Seeking to receive additional job orders and remain an extension of the owner’s team, only earning the right for future opportunities to serve the client through performance the contractor naturally focuses on providing the owner with only its very best solutions, including creativity in cost effective ideas.

5. Support of local small and minority businesses. More building funds stay close to home, because the professional JOC contractor retained under a JOC program manages the construction work by using small and minority local subcontractors who typically are most cost effective and operate locally – hiring local people and using local resources.

2015 Healthcare Construction – Construction Contractor Compliance

Full White Paper

Healthcare Construction Compliance 2015

Are  you keeping up  with  the  healthcare construction  requirements? It is now required  to provide workers with new training  about chemicals; and companies that work in hospitals or other healthcare facilities must provide

infection control  training  to all workers on site. If you are not already familiar  with the acronyms GHS and ICRA, then it’s time to get caught up! The terms Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and Infection Control Risk Assessment (ICRA) are getting focused attention from  regulators,  business  owners,  and  property managers  with  new  requirements. Do the contractors and staff  working in your  healthcare  facilities have their necessary training certificates for compliance?

This white paper provides information on:

  • Healthcare Construction and Renovation Requirements Summary with Resource List
  • Caution: The Training Requirements are Constantly Changing!
  • Contractor Selection and the Impact on Compliance: Get the Right Credentials and Qualifications
  • Useful Tools: GHS Hazardous Class Matrix & ICRA Checklists

Did you know it takes ongoing specialized training to perform construction work in a healthcare facility?

Healthcare and university  teaching healthcare facilities are included in these requirements. Training and accreditation is now necessary as a result of the regulatory environmental changes and the PPACA (Patient

Protection Affordable Care  Act) as mandated by TJC (The Joint Commission) and CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). Healthcare workers and the construction teams working in healthcare facilities need to have their Infectious Control Risk Assessment (ICRA) training certificates as well as OSHA’s annual Bloodborne

Pathogen Training. To help expedite following the latest guidelines, a list of tools and documents can be downloaded for use at http://www.ashe.org/resources/ tools. This library helps facility managers with checklists and updates so that compliance can achieved with confidence.

Compliance standards for all construction activities in healthcare facilities are mandated  and they continue to evolve  every year. These standards are  specific to the impact of exposure of airborne  pathogens during construction and their impact on the Health, Safety, and Welfare of patients, caregivers, workers, and employees during the construction process.

The ASHE resource site listed above is a great place to start but we want to share resources and access to the documents and research needed for compliance. In addition to OSHA standards, guidelines from the following organizations apply to construction and renovation activities conducted at or within  healthcare facilities:

The Joint Commission (TJC) sets requirements for con- struction and renovation projects that address design and planning criteria, fire safety, patient privacy,  employee training  and performance, and infection control.  To help health care facilities comply with Environment of Care standards, the Joint Commission has issued Planning, Design, and Construction of Health Care Environments. The Joint Commission also  requires that organizations develop a policy to compensate for hazards. These stan- dards and documents are also located at both the ASHE site http://www.ashe.org/resources and the Joint Commission site http://www.jointcommission.org.

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) has issued guidelines for the design and construction of healthcare facilities that contain information on standards for construction, ventilation, and equipping new medical facilities. According to the AIA, facility managers should inform contractors of the following planning and design elements:

Involvement of infection control, safety, and risk management

Risk assessment of susceptible patient  locations

The effects of shutting off power, shutting down heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, disruptions of ventilation and air flow, and outdoor wind patterns

Air flow (from  patient-occupied areas to constructionsite)

Instructions on building  services interruption

Communication requirements-both internal  and external

Workers need Infectious Control Risk Assessment (ICRA) Training certificates and OSHA’s annual Bloodborne Pathogen Training.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)’s Hospital Infections Program addresses infection control  issues related to construction and renovation projects. CDC works 24/7 to protect  America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. The CDC provides information regarding the use of ventilation and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for preventing  the transmission of tuberculosis  in healthcare facilities. Recommendations for engineering controls include:

local exhaust ventilation (i.e., source control)

general ventilation considerations, including dilution and removal of contaminants, airflow  patterns within rooms, airflow  direction in facilities,  negative pressure in rooms, and TB isolation rooms

air cleaning or disinfection, accomplished by filtration of air (e.g., through high-efficiency particulate air filters)  or by ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

The National Fire Protection  Agency (NFPA) has developed building  construction codes that include standards for windows and doors; chimneys and vents; the fire-resistivity of floor-ceiling assemblies, walls used to form compartments and other finish  materials; exterior or interior bearing walls; and other structures.  http://www. nfpa.org/codes-and-standards

Contractor Selection: How do you make sure the workers have the right credentials?

Many healthcare institutions have decided to include ICRA training certificate requirements and proof of completion of Blood  borne Pathogen training in the project qualification/bid process to ensure compliance.  This is the easiest way to qualify  proposed staff  and it creates documentation with copies of certificates on file to demonstrate compliance.  The most common  courses are Construction ICRA: Best Practices in Healthcare Construction in addition to OHSA’s required  Blood borne Pathogen standard.


Did you know the most important unnecessary infection in a healthcare facility is due to Aspergillus (a fungal spore)?

Environmental disturbances due to construction and/or  renovation activities in and around hospitals raise the airborne  Aspergillus spore counts in hospitals and have been associated with unnecessary pneumonia. Aspergillus commonly occurs in soil, water, and decaying vegetation.

The fungi  have been cultured from unfiltered air, ventilation systems, contaminated dust dislodged during hospital renovation and construction, horizontal surfaces, food, and ornamental plants.

About the Authors:

Delbert Bittinger is a SDB healthcare project manager specializing in facility renovation projects with a 30-year career focused on the dedication to serving the healthcare industry.  He serves as a subject matter expert (SME). He can be reached at Delbert.Bittinger@sdb.com.

Rhonna Endres, CME, FMP, RID is the Director of Business Development at SDB with over 25 years of experience in client development serving both healthcare systems and university teaching institutions. She can be reached at endres@sdb.com.

Resource Library For Facility Managers, Project Managers and Contractors:

AIA Academy of Architecture for Health (AAH)—Contains reports, and other documents related to healthcare design & Construction. http://network.aia.org/academyofarchitectureforhealth

Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities by the Facility Guidelines Institute http://www.fgiguidelines.org/

OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention Safety and Health Topics web page at: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens

American Hospital Association—Information generally focused on financial and organizational issues, but includes a good resource center and checklist tools.


American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE)—An advocate for continuous improvement in the health care engineering and facilities management professions. http://www.ashe.org

Green Guide for Health Care™—A best practices guide for healthy and sustainable building design, construction, and operations for the healthcare industry. http://www.gghc.org

Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)—Has some facility related information, though it is largely concerned with operational issues. http://www.jointcommission.org

Practice Greenhealth—The nation’s leading membership and networking organization for institutions in the healthcare community that have made a commitment to sustainable, eco-friendly practices.


Obtaining the Certified Healthcare Constructor certification provides qualified personnel the opportunity to be recognized among the elite in the critical field of healthcare construction. http://www.aha.org/certifcenter/CHC

The Center for Health Design An extensive site focusing on healthcare facility design and EDAC certification. https://www.healthdesign.org

VA Office of Construction & Facility Management

(CFM) Technical Information Library—Includes manuals, guides, and other standards covering all aspects of health care facility design. http://www.cfm.va.gov/til/index.asp

Infrastructure / Facility Asset Management – PAS 55000

While I an not an “ISO fan”, common terms, definitions, and linkages (ontology)  are requirements for facility and/or asset management.

  • ISO 55000: Asset Management – Overview of Asset Management, Principles and Terminology.
  • ISO 55001: Asset Management – Management Systems – Requirements for an Asset Management System from a best management practices perspective.
  • ISO 55002: Asset management — Management systems — Guidelines for the application of an asset management system.

The core of ISO 55000:

  1. Asset is an item, thing or entity that has potential or actual value to an organization
  2. Management system – Set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives, and processes to achieve those objectives
  3. Assets and asset management are linked to the organizational strategic plan and support the mission and objectives of the organization

The benefits of asset management are equivalent to those of efficient construction delivery methods (Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and Job Order Contracting – JOC)

  • improved financial performance
  • informed asset investment decisions
  • managed risk
  • improved services and outputs
  • demonstrated social responsibility
  • demonstrated compliance
  • enhanced reputation
  • improved organizational sustainability
  • improved efficiency and effectiveness

Focus areas include:

  • Value
  • Alignment
  • Leadership
  • Assurance

PAS 55000

Consider for a moment the impacts that asset management practices could have upon:

  • Total cost of unavailability
  • Capital investment planning
  • Safety
  • Environment
  • Reputation

But don’t forget you MUST speak the language of all stakeholders!!!






−Oversight Groups



The questions to be answered before asset management can be fully addressed:

  1. What do we own and where are they?
  2. What are they worth?
  3. What condition are they in?
  4. What do I need to do to them?
  5. When do I need to do it?
  6. How much money will I need to invest?
  7. How do we achieve sustainability?

Asset Management PAS 55000

Operational excellence – collaboration, teamwork, and continuous improvement are hallmarks of LEAN construction delivery methods and strategic asset managements.  Operational Excellence reduces operational costs and waste, without affecting quality, time delivery and cost.

job order contracting

http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and project management technology for efficient construction project delivery – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, …


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